Prudhoe Bay Oil Field Discovery Well Site

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Prudhoe Bay Oil Field

Prudhoe Bay oil field
Prudhoe Bay Oil Field is located in Alaska
Prudhoe Bay Oil Field
Location of Prudhoe Bay oil field
CountryUnited States
RegionAlaska North Slope
Offshore/onshoreonshore
Coordinates70°18′24″N 148°43′57″W / 70.30667°N 148.73250°W / 70.30667; -148.73250Coordinates: 70°18′24″N 148°43′57″W / 70.30667°N 148.73250°W / 70.30667; -148.73250
OperatorBP
PartnersBP, ExxonMobil, ConocoPhillips
Field history
DiscoveryMarch 12, 1968 by ARCO and Exxon's Prudhoe Bay State #1 well
Start of productionJune 20, 1977
Peak of production1.5 million barrels per day (240,000 m3/d)
Peak year1988
Production
Current production of oil319,013 barrels per day (~1.590×10^7 t/a)
Year of current production of oil2022
Estimated oil in place25,000 million barrels (~3.4×10^9 t)
Estimated gas in place46,500×10^9 cu ft (1,320×10^9 m3)
Producing formationsSadlerochit

Prudhoe Bay Oil Field is a large oil field on Alaska's North Slope. It is the largest oil field in North America, covering 213,543 acres (86,418 ha) and originally containing approximately 25 billion barrels (4.0×109 m3) of oil.[1] The amount of recoverable oil in the field is more than double that of the next largest field in the United States by acreage (the East Texas oil field), while the largest by reserves is the Permian Basin (North America). The field was operated by BP; partners were ExxonMobil and ConocoPhillips until August 2019; when BP sold all its Alaska assets to Hilcorp.[2]

Location

The field is located 400 miles (640 km) north of Fairbanks and 650 miles (1,050 km) north of Anchorage, 250 miles (400 km) north of the Arctic Circle, and 1,200 miles (1,900 km) south of the North Pole.[1] It is on the North Slope and lies between the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska to the west and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to the east.

Leasing

The State of Alaska owns the land and leases the area as the Prudhoe Bay Unit.[3] In the terminology that the State of Alaska uses in its leasing program, the "Prudhoe Bay Oil Field" is called the Prudhoe Bay Oil Pool.[4] Oil pools within the Prudhoe Bay Unit include the following – maps showing the location of each pool are in the associated reference.

Pool name Operator Discovery well driller Discovery well start date
Aurora[5] BP Exploration Mobil August 24, 1969
Borealis Pool[6] BP Exploration Mobil August 8, 1969
Lisburne[7] BP Exploration Arco December 16, 1967
Midnight Sun[8] BP Exploration BP Exploration December 20, 1997
Russell Drilling Undef[9] BP Exploration BP Exploration March 10, 2001
Niakuk[10] BP Exploration Sohio April 18, 1985
N Prudhoe Bay[11] BP Exploration Arco April 4, 1970
Orion[12] BP Exploration Mobil April 7, 1969
Polaris[13] BP Exploration BP Exploration August 24, 1969
Pt. McIntyre[14] BP Exploration Arco / Exxon March 22, 1988
Prudhoe[4] BP Exploration Arco December 19, 1967
PM Stump Island[15] BP Exploration Arco / Exxon March 22, 1988
PM Undefined[16] BP Exploration BP Exploration January 25, 1997
Ugnu Undefined WTRSP[17] BP Exploration BP Exploration May 20, 2004
West Beach[18] BP Exploration Arco July 26, 1976
W Beach Tertiary Undef WTR Pool[19] BP Exploration Arco / Exxon July 22, 1976
A map of northern Alaska; the dotted line shows the southern boundary of the North Slope. The National Petroleum Reserve -Alaska is to the West, the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to the east, and Prudhoe Bay is between them. Red lines are pipelines.

History

Prudhoe Bay Oil Field Discovery Well Site
Alaska Heritage Resources Survey
Prudhoe Bay Oil Field is located in Alaska
Prudhoe Bay Oil Field
LocationAbout 1.5 miles (2.4 km) northwest of Putuligayuk River mouth, along western shore of Prudhoe Bay
Nearest cityPrudhoe Bay
Coordinates70°19′27″N 148°32′28″W / 70.32408°N 148.54116°W / 70.32408; -148.54116
Arealess than one acre
Built1967 (1967)
Built byAtlantic Richfield Corporation; Humble Oil Company
NRHP reference No.00000264[20]
AHRS No.XBP-00056
Added to NRHPMarch 23, 2000
Caribou near Prudhoe Bay, 1973
1971 aerial photo of the oil fields by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
Roger MacBride touring the oil field facilities during his 1976 presidential campaign.

The area was originally identified as a potential oil field and selected in the early 1960s as part of the 100 million acres the federal government allotted to the new state of Alaska under the Alaska Statehood Act as a form of economic support. Tom Marshall, a key state employee tasked with selecting the 100 million acres, said the geology reminded him of big oil basins he'd seen in Wyoming.[21][22] Commercial oil exploration started in Prudhoe Bay area in the 1960s and, after a number of fruitless years, a rig produced a natural gas flare in December 1967. The oil field was confirmed on March 12, 1968, by Humble Oil (which later became part of Exxon) and Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO), with the well Prudhoe Bay State #1.[1][4][23] ARCO was the operating partner.[24] Drilling sites for the discovery and confirmation wells were staked by geologist Marvin Mangus. BP was among the companies that had been active in the region, and BP was able to establish itself as a major player in the western part of the Prudhoe field.[1] The field was initially operated as two separate developments, the BP Western Operating Area and the ARCO Eastern Operating Area. Upon acquisition of ARCO by BP and sale of ARCO Alaska assets to Phillips Petroleum in 2000, the two operating areas were consolidated and BP became the sole operator of the field.[1][25]: slide 4  In 1974 the State of Alaska's Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys estimated that the field held 10 billion barrels (1.6×109 m3) of oil and 26 trillion cubic feet (740×10^9 m3) of natural gas.[26] Production did not begin until June 20, 1977 when the Alaska Pipeline was completed.[1]

The site of the field's discovery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000, and has a commemorative marker. A well was operated at that site until 1985.[27]

Operations

The field was initially operated as two separate developments, the BP Western Operating Area (WOA: Oil Rim) and the ARCO Eastern Operating Area (EOA: Gas Cap). Upon acquisition of ARCO by BP and sale of ARCO Alaska assets to Phillips Petroleum in 2000, the two operating areas were consolidated and BP became the sole operator of the field.[25]: slide 4 

In the field, oil is moved through pipelines from about 1000 wells to a pumping station at the head of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline; "flow lines" carry oil from the wells to local processing centers, then through "transit lines" to the pumping station.[25]: slides 4a-d  According to a 2007 recording of BP representative, to replace the "huge volume of material" BP removes from beneath the ground, sea water is injected that is collected from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska.[28]

Production

North Slope oil production peaked in 1989 at 2 million barrels per day (320×10^3 m3/d) (Greater Prudhoe Bay: 1.5 million barrels per day (240×10^3 m3/d), but had fallen to 943,000 barrels per day (149,900 m3/d) in 2005,[29] while Greater Prudhoe averaged 411,000 barrels per day (65,300 m3/d) in December, 2006 and Prudhoe itself averaged 285,000 barrels per day (45,300 m3/d).[30] Total production from 1977 through 2005 was 11 billion barrels (1.7×10^9 m3).

As of August 2006, BP estimated that 2 billion barrels (320×10^6 m3) of recoverable oil remain and can be recovered with current technology.[1][31]

Hilcorp energy is the field operator at Prudhoe Bay and has engaged in an aggressive redevelopment of the aging field since taking over as operator in mid-2019 from BP.

Prudhoe Bay production was 319,013 barrels per day (50,719.0 m3/d) in February compared with 316,825 barrels per day (50,371.1 m3/d) barrels per day in January and 305,780 barrels per day (48,615 m3/d)barrels per day year-over-year in February, 2021. [32]

Associated oil fields

Oilfield facilities at Prudhoe Bay.

The Milne Point oil field is 35 miles (56 km) west of Prudhoe Bay and the leased area, called the Milne Point Unit by the State of Alaska, includes the Kuparuk River Oil Pool,[33] Sag River Oil Pool,[34] and the Schrader Bluff Oil Pool.[35]

The source rock for the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field and neighboring reserves is a potential source for tight oil and shale gas. As of 2013 mineral rights to 500,000 acres overlying the North Slope oil shale had been leased by Great Bear Petroleum whose principal is the petroleum geologist Ed Duncan.[36]

Geology

The field is an anticline structure located on the Barrow Arch, with faulting on the north side of the arch and a Lower Cretaceous unconformity on the east.[37]

Claims on petroleum seeps in the Cape Simpson area were first made in 1915 by a group consisting of T.L. Richardson, W.B. Van Valen, O. Hansen, B. Panigeo and Egowa after these last two, Eskimos, pointed out two large mounds fifty feet high and 200 feet in diameter.[38] Gold prospectors Smith and Berry also discovered these seeps and formed an investment group in San Francisco led by R.D. Adams, who funded an investigation led by the geologist H.A. Campbell.[39] His report noted disputing claims by Standard Oil Company.[40] This led to the establishment of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4 in 1923, after which the Navy engaged the United States Geological Survey to survey the area from 1923 until 1926, who concluded the best objectives were Cretaceous rocks.[41] From 1943 until 1953, the Navy drilled eighty wells, including the area at Cape Simpson and Umiat but none flowed more than 250 barrels per day.[42]

The discovery of the Swanson River Oil Field on the Kenai Peninsula in 1957 by the Richfield Oil Corporation prompted the company to send geologists to the Arctic starting in 1959 and seismic survey crews in 1963, which recorded a reconnaissance line across what was identified as the Prudhoe structure in 1964.[43] In 1965, during the state lease sale, Richfield partnered with Humble Oil and acquired leases over what was later identified as the gas cap while British Petroleum was awarded leases over the "oil ring".[44]

In 1968, Prudhoe Bay State No. 1 encountered the Permian-Triassic Sadlerochit formation at 8200 feet which flowed gas at 1.25 million cubic feet per day with 20–27 per cent porosity and "tens of millidarcies" permeability.[45] Oil, condensate and gas are produced from the Triassic, Ivishak sandstone. This reservoir was deposited as a complex amalgamation of fan deltas and alluvial fans. The continuity of this fan delta was shown to extend seven miles away when the ARCO-Humble Sag River State No. 1 well was drilled.[46] During the field's early life the oil-bearing sandstone in some locations was 600 feet (180 m) thick. Today, the oil bearing zone's average thickness is about 60 feet (18 m) and the initial estimate of Oil in place was 2.3 billion barrels.[47][48]

The original target of the Prudhoe Bay State No. 1 was the Mississippian Lisburne limestone, encountered at 8,800 feet and flowed 1,152 barrels of oil per day in the 9,505 to 9,825 foot interval along with 1.3 million cubic feet of gas.[49] This initial oil was burned "because there wasn't ample storage", the flames of which were spotted by a passing airline.[50] The Department of Energy in 1991 estimated oil in place for this formation at 3.1 billion barrels.[51]

Statistics

Statistics for the Greater Prudhoe Bay Field:[1]

  • Discovery well: Prudhoe Bay State #1
  • Discovery date: December 26, 1967[52]
  • Step-out well March 1968 confirmed[52]
  • Production start: June 20, 1977
  • Total field area: 213,543 acres (864.18 km2)
  • Oil production wells: 1114
  • Total capacity: 25 billion barrels (4.0×109 m3)
    • Produced: 12 billion barrels (1.9×109 m3) as of March 28, 2013
    • Total recoverable: 16 billion barrels (2.5×109 m3)
    • Remaining recoverable: 4 billion barrels (640,000,000 m3)
  • Peak production: 1.97 million barrels per day (1988)[53]
  • Natural gas:
    • Total: 46×10^12 cu ft (1,300 km3) (estimated)
    • Recoverable: 26×10^12 cu ft (740 km3)
  • Greater Prudhoe Bay satellite fields:
    • East Operating Area (formerly ARCO)(production start date: 1977)
    • West Operating Area (BP Exploration)(production start date: 1977)
    • Midnight Sun (production start date: 1998)
    • Aurora (production start date: 2000)
    • Orion (production start date: 2002)
    • Polaris (production start date: 1999)
    • Borealis (production start date: 2001)
  • Ownership:
    • BP Exploration (Operator): 26%
    • ConocoPhillips.: 36%
    • ExxonMobil: 36%
    • Others: 2%
  • On 27 August 2019 BP announces the agreement to sell all its Alaska operations and interests to Hilcorp for $5.6 billion. The transaction includes interests in giant Prudhoe Bay field and Trans Alaska Pipeline.[54]

March 2006 oil spill

On March 2, 2006, a worker for BP Exploration (Alaska) discovered an oil spill in western Prudhoe Bay. Up to 6,400 barrels (1,020 m3) were spilled, making it the largest oil spill on Alaska's north slope to date.[55] The spill was attributed to a pipeline rupture.

In October 2007, BP was found guilty to a misdemeanor violation of the Clean Water Act to resolve criminal liability relating to pipeline leaks of crude oil. As a result of the guilty plea, BP Alaska agreed to pay $20 million which included the criminal fine, community service payments and criminal restitution.[56]

August 2006 shutdown

The March 2006 oil spill led the United States Department of Transportation to mandate that the transit lines be inspected for corrosion. As a result, BP announced on 6 August 2006 they had discovered severe corrosion, with losses of 70 to 81 percent in the 3/8-inch thickness of the pipe walls. Oil leaking was reported in one area, with the equivalent of four to five barrels of oil spilled.[57] The damage required replacement of 16 of 22 miles (35 km) of pipeline at the Prudhoe Bay. BP said it was surprised to find such severe corrosion and that it had been 14 years since they had used a pipeline inspection gauge ("pig") to clean out its lines because the company believed the use of the pigging equipment might damage pipe integrity.[58] BP Exploration announced that they were shutting down the oil field indefinitely, due to the severe corrosion and a minor leak in the oil transit lines.[58][59] This led to an 8% reduction in the amount of oil produced by the United States, as Prudhoe Bay was the country's largest oil producer, producing over 400,000 barrels per day (64,000 m3/d).

BP initially estimated up to 2 to 3 months before the pipelines would be fully operational.[58] This caused increases in world oil prices,[60] and BP revised the estimated operational date to January 2007.[61] London brent crude hit an intra-day high of $77.73/barrel, the all-time high, at that time, being $78.18/barrel. United States crude oil peaked at $76.67/barrel. The state of Alaska, which gets most of its revenue from taxing the oil industry, lost as much as $6.4 million each day until production restarted.[62]

No part of the Alaska Pipeline was affected, although Alyeska said that lower crude oil volumes could slow pumping during the BP shutdown.[63]

The field has since reopened. In mid-June 2007, however, a small leak occurred in one of the pipelines that connect the field to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, shutting down the field for a week.[64]

In March 2009 the State of Alaska sued BP in matter number 3AN-09-06181-CI alleging that BP was negligent in its management of rigging operations and corrosion control in the transit lines leading from the field into pumping station one of the Trans Alaska Pipeline. The state is seeking damages for lost royalty and tax revenues. The case seems to have been dismissed in 2010.[65]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Prudhoe Bay Fact Sheet Archived 2009-03-26 at the Wayback Machine. BP. August 2006. (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document)
  2. ^ "BP sells Alaska assets to Hilcorp Alaska for $5.6 billion". CNBC. August 27, 2019.
  3. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. Oil and Gas Pools – Statistics Pages Archived 2012-12-30 at the Wayback Machine Accessed April 14, 2013
  4. ^ a b c Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, Prudhoe Oil Pool Archived 2013-12-30 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, Aurora Oil Pool Archived 2013-12-30 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, Borealis Oil Pool Archived 2013-12-30 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, Lisburne Oil Pool Archived 2013-12-30 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, Midnight Sun Oil Pool Archived 2012-12-30 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, Niakuk Ivsh-SR Undef Oil Pool Archived 2013-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, Niakuk Oil Pool Archived 2013-12-30 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, N Prudhoe Bay Oil Pool Archived 2013-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, Orion Oil Pool Archived 2013-12-30 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, Polaris Oil Pool Archived 2013-12-30 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, Pt. McIntyre Oil Pool Archived 2013-12-30 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, PM Stump Island Archived 2013-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, PM Undefined Archived 2013-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, Ugnu Undefined WTRSP Archived 2013-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, West Beach Oil Pool Archived 2013-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. Pool Statistics, Prudhoe Bay Unit, W Beach Tertiary Undef WTR Pooll Archived 2013-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
  21. ^ Harball, Elizabeth (2017-06-24). "Alaska's 40 Years Of Oil Riches Almost Never Was". NPR. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  22. ^ Ragsdale, Rose (2008-11-16). "40 Years at Prudhoe Bay: Young geologist changed Alaska history". Vol. 13, No. 46: Petroleum News. Retrieved 27 June 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  23. ^ Arthur C. Banet, Jr. U.S Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management Alaska State Office. March 1991. Oil and Gas Development on Alaska's North Slope: Past Results and Future Prospects. Archived 2015-09-23 at the Wayback Machine BLM-Alaska Open File Report 31.
  24. ^ Steve Quinn for Petroleum News. Vol. 16, No. 14 Week of April 03, 2011 ExxonMobil in Alaska: Exxon selects Prudhoe discovery well site: Humble Oil assumed an unusually active role as Atlantic Richfield’s 50-50 partner on Alaska’s North Slope in the 1960s
  25. ^ a b c International Mapping on behalf of BP. BP in Alaska, animated map Archived 2013-05-15 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Estimated Speculative Recoverable Resources of Oil and Natural Gas in Alaska. Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys. Department of Natural Resources. State of Alaska. January 1974. (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document)
  27. ^ "NRHP nomination for Prudhoe Bay Oil Field Discovery Well Site". National Park Service. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
  28. ^ "BP Seawater Treatment Plant in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska". Youtube. ATEECEICC. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  29. ^ "US Republicans set to turn Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge into oilfield". Bellona.com. 14 April 2005. Archived from the original on 26 November 2005. Retrieved 2006-08-08.
  30. ^ "Alaska North Slope production breaks 800,000 bbl/d (130,000 m3/d) barrier". Petroleum News. 7 January 2007.
  31. ^ BP Plans to Pull Another 2B Barrels of Oil from Alaska's Prudhoe Bay. Rigzone. February 22, 2008
  32. ^ "New oil projects on slope begin to lift production".
  33. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Milne Point Unit, Kuparuk River Oil Pool Archived 2013-05-30 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Milne Point Unit, Sag River Oil Pool Archived 2012-12-30 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ Staff, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. AOGCC Pool Statistics, Milne Point Unit, Schrader Bluff Oil Pool Archived 2013-12-30 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ Margaret Kriz Hobson (April 3, 2013). "SHALE OIL: Geologist's Alaska gamble could turn into America's next big shale play". Energy Wire, E & E Publishing. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
  37. ^ Sweet, J.M., 2008, Discovery at Prudhoe Bay Oil, Blaine: Hancock House, ISBN 978-0-88839-630-3, p. 183
  38. ^ Sweet, J.M., 2008, Discovery at Prudhoe Bay Oil, Blaine: Hancock House, ISBN 978-0-88839-630-3, p. 63
  39. ^ Sweet, J.M., 2008, Discovery at Prudhoe Bay Oil, Blaine: Hancock House, ISBN 978-0-88839-630-3, pp. 64–65
  40. ^ Sweet, J.M., 2008, Discovery at Prudhoe Bay Oil, Blaine: Hancock House, ISBN 978-0-88839-630-3, p. 65
  41. ^ Sweet, J.M., 2008, Discovery at Prudhoe Bay Oil, Blaine: Hancock House, ISBN 978-0-88839-630-3, pp. 68 and 86
  42. ^ Sweet, J.M., 2008, Discovery at Prudhoe Bay Oil, Blaine: Hancock House, ISBN 978-0-88839-630-3, pp. 94–95
  43. ^ Sweet, J.M., 2008, Discovery at Prudhoe Bay Oil, Blaine: Hancock House, ISBN 978-0-88839-630-3, pp. 111, 129 and 133
  44. ^ Sweet, J.M., 2008, Discovery at Prudhoe Bay Oil, Blaine: Hancock House, ISBN 978-0-88839-630-3, p. 170
  45. ^ Sweet, J.M., 2008, Discovery at Prudhoe Bay Oil, Blaine: Hancock House, ISBN 978-0-88839-630-3, pp. 238–239 and 242
  46. ^ Sweet, J.M., 2008, Discovery at Prudhoe Bay Oil, Blaine: Hancock House, ISBN 978-0-88839-630-3, p. 242
  47. ^ Sweet, J.M., 2008, Discovery at Prudhoe Bay Oil, Blaine: Hancock House, ISBN 978-0-88839-630-3, p. 245
  48. ^ Jones, H.P.; Speers, R.G. (1976). Braunstein, Jules (ed.). Permo-Triassic Reservoirs of Prudhoe Bay Field, North Slope, Alaska, in North American Oil and Gas Fields. Tulsa: The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. pp. 23–50. ISBN 0891813004.
  49. ^ Sweet, J.M., 2008, Discovery at Prudhoe Bay Oil, Blaine: Hancock House, ISBN 978-0-88839-630-3, pp. 248 and 254
  50. ^ Sweet, J.M., 2008, Discovery at Prudhoe Bay Oil, Blaine: Hancock House, ISBN 978-0-88839-630-3, pp. 254 and 257
  51. ^ Sweet, J.M., 2008, Discovery at Prudhoe Bay Oil, Blaine: Hancock House, ISBN 978-0-88839-630-3, p. 259
  52. ^ a b "The Prize" Daniel Yergin
  53. ^ "Alaska North Slope Crude Oil Production (Thousand Barrels per Day)". www.eia.gov. Retrieved 2020-10-23.
  54. ^ "BP to quit Alaska after 60 years with $5.6 billion sale to Hilcorp", Reuters, 27 August 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  55. ^ "Alaska hit by 'massive' oil spill". BBC News. March 11, 2006. Retrieved August 8, 2006.
  56. ^ Chittim, Gary (November 3, 2008). "Agencies respond to oil spill whistle blower". KING 5.com. Archived from the original on November 7, 2008.
  57. ^ "Biggest Oil Field in U.S. Is Forced to Stop Pumping". New York Times. 2006-08-08.
  58. ^ a b c Pemberton, Mary (8 August 2006). "Gas prices climb as oil pipeline in Alaska must be replaced". The Daily Texan. Archived from the original on June 24, 2008. Retrieved 2006-08-08.
  59. ^ "BP shutting top US oil field Prudhoe Bay due to spill". Reuters. 7 August 2006. Archived from the original on 8 January 2007. Retrieved 2006-08-08.
  60. ^ Raft, Anna (7 August 2006). "BP restart of Prudhoe Bay oil field may take months". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2006-08-08.
  61. ^ "BP oil field 'closed until 2007'". CNN. August 8, 2006. Archived from the original on February 10, 2008. Retrieved 2006-08-08.
  62. ^ Loy, Wesley (7 August 2006). "BP shuts down Prudhoe Bay". Anchorage Daily News. Archived from the original on 2006-08-19. Retrieved 2006-08-08.
  63. ^ Loy, Wesley & Richard Richtmyer (August 8, 2006). "Massive repairs: BP admits corrosion control was inadequate, prepares to replace North Slope transit lines". Anchorage Daily News. Archived from the original on 2006-08-21. Retrieved 2006-08-08.
  64. ^ "BP to reopen oil pipeline in Alaska". The Scotsman. June 25, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-10.
  65. ^ Bolado, Carolina. "Court Dismisses Alaska's Lost Taxes Claim Against BP". Law360. Retrieved 28 December 2014.

Further reading

  • Jamison, H.C., Brockett, L.D., and McIntosh, R.A., 1980, Prudhoe Bay – A 10-Year Perspective, in Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade: 1968–1978, AAPG Memoir 30, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, ISBN 0-89181-306-3.
  • Sweet, John M. (2008). Discovery at Prudhoe Bay. Blaine: Hancock House. pp. 312 pp. ISBN 978-0-88839-630-3.

External links

List of National Historic Landmarks in Alaska

The National Historic Landmarks in Alaska represent Alaska's history from its Russian heritage to its statehood. There are 50 National Historic Landmarks (NHLs) in the state.[1] The United States National Historic Landmark program is operated under the auspices of the National Park Service, and recognizes structures, districts, objects, and similar resources according to a list of criteria of national significance.[2] Major themes include Alaska's ancient cultures, Russian heritage, and role in World War II, but other stories are represented as well. In addition, two sites in Alaska were designated National Historic Landmarks, but the designation was later withdrawn. These sites appear in a separate table further below.

The National Historic Landmark Program is administered by the National Park Service, a branch of the Department of the Interior. The National Park Service determines which properties meet NHL criteria and makes nomination recommendations after an owner notification process.[2] The Secretary of the Interior reviews nominations and, based on a set of predetermined criteria, makes a decision on NHL designation or a determination of eligibility for designation.[3] Both public and privately owned properties can be designated as NHLs. This designation provides indirect, partial protection of the historic integrity of the properties via tax incentives, grants, monitoring of threats, and other means.[2] Owners may object to the nomination of the property as a NHL. When this is the case the Secretary of the Interior can only designate a site as eligible for designation.[3]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML

NHLs in Alaska

The table below lists all of the National Historic Landmark sites, along with added detail and description.

[4] Landmark name Image Date designated[5] Location County Description
1 Adak Army Base and Adak Naval Operating Base
Historic aerial photograph of the Adak Army Base and Adak Naval Operating Base in early 1944, a busy harbor ringed by installations with snowy mountains in the background.
February 27, 1987
(#87000841)
Adak Station
51°52′19″N 176°38′10″W / 51.872°N 176.636°W / 51.872; -176.636 (Adak Army Base and Adak Naval Operating Base)
Aleutians West Established in 1942 as part of World War II, this military base was the launching pad for the American attack on the Japanese-held Aleutian Islands of Kiska and Attu.
2 Alaska Native Brotherhood Hall
1991 HABS photo
June 2, 1978
(#72000192)
235 Katlian Street, Sitka
57°03′03″N 135°20′28″W / 57.0507°N 135.34099°W / 57.0507; -135.34099 (Alaska Native Brotherhood Hall)
Sitka This 1914 meeting hall and headquarters building served the original chapter of Alaska Native Brotherhood, founded by Tlingits in the early 1900s to fight discrimination and represent interests of natives.
3 Amalik Bay Archeological District
Amalik Bay Archeological District
April 5, 2005
(#05000460)
Address restricted[6], Katmai National Park and Preserve
Kodiak Island An archeological site located in Kodiak Island Borough
4 American Flag Raising Site
Castle Hill in 2013
June 13, 1962
(#66000162)
On Castle Hill, Sitka
57°02′55″N 135°20′16″W / 57.0487°N 135.33783°W / 57.0487; -135.33783 (American Flag Raising Site)
Sitka In 1867, site of Russian flag lowering and American flag raising marking the transfer of Alaska to the U.S.; in 1959, after Alaska admitted as 49th state, site of first official raising of 49-star U.S. flag; also known as Castle Hill and Baranof Castle.
5 Anangula Site
Anangula Site
June 2, 1978
(#78000512)
Nikolski
53°00′02″N 168°54′40″W / 53.00056°N 168.91111°W / 53.00056; -168.91111 (Anangula Site)
Aleutians West Site of earliest signs of human occupation in the Aleutian Islands.
6 Attu Battlefield and U.S. Army and Navy Airfields on Attu
Attu Battlefield and U.S. Army and Navy Airfields on Attu
February 4, 1985
(#85002729)
Attu Island
52°54′02″N 172°54′34″E / 52.9005°N 172.9094°E / 52.9005; 172.9094 (Attu Battlefield and U.S. Army and Navy Airfields on Attu)
Aleutians West Site of bloody battle in which only 29 of 2,500 Japanese survived, only land battle on U.S. soil during World War II.
7 Bering Expedition Landing Site
Photograph of Kaykak Island from offshore, believed to be the Bering Expedition Landing Site.
June 2, 1978
(#77001542)
On Kayak Island
59°53′40″N 144°29′08″W / 59.89444°N 144.48556°W / 59.89444; -144.48556 (Bering Expedition Landing Site)
Valdez-Cordova Site of first recorded contacts between natives and Europeans
8 Birnirk site
Birnirk site
December 29, 1962
(#66000953)
Address restricted[6], Barrow
North Slope Sixteen prehistoric mounds of the Birnirk and Thule cultures.
9 Brooks River Archeological District
Brooks River Archeological District
April 19, 1993
(#78000342)
Address restricted[6], Katmai National Park and Preserve
Lake and Peninsula An archaeological site located along an ancient beach and modern river. There are twenty separate well preserved sites which have provided a large number of Arctic Small Tool Tradition artifacts.
10 Cape Krusenstern Archeological District
Aerial photograph of the Cape Krusenstern Archeological District, showing the coast where the archeological strata are found.
November 7, 1973
(#73000378)
Address restricted[6], Kotzebue
Northwest Arctic The archeological district comprises 114 ancient beach ridges which formed nearly 60 years apart. They provide a rare sequential look at over 5000 years of inhabitation.
11 Cape Nome Mining District Discovery Sites
Cape Nome Mining District Discovery Sites
June 2, 1978
(#78000535)
Nome
64°33′49″N 165°22′17″W / 64.56361°N 165.37139°W / 64.56361; -165.37139 (Cape Nome Mining District Discovery Sites)
Nome Significant for role in the history of gold mining in Alaska
12 Chaluka Site
Chaluka Site
December 29, 1962
(#66000155)
Address restricted[6], Nikolski
Aleutians West Includes a large mound; yields information about origins of Aleuts
13 Chilkoot Trail and Dyea Site
alt=Historical photograph of a dense line of miners climbing over the Chilkoot Trail during the Klondike Gold Rush.
June 16, 1978
(#75002120)
Skagway
59°35′14″N 135°19′56″W / 59.58719°N 135.33234°W / 59.58719; -135.33234 (Chilkoot Trail and Dyea Site)
Skagway Major access route from the coast to Yukon goldfields in the late 1890s.
14 Church of the Holy Ascension
alt=Photograph of the Church of the Holy Ascension on a sunny day, with red roofs, green onion domes, and a small churchyard.
April 15, 1970
(#70000112)
Unalaska
53°52′33″N 166°32′11″W / 53.8758°N 166.5363°W / 53.8758; -166.5363 (Church of the Holy Ascension)
Aleutians West Built in 1826 by the Russian American Fur Company to help acclimate indigenous population in Russian Alaska.
15 Dry Creek Archeological Site
Photograph of archaeologists working at the Dry Creek site
June 2, 1978
(#74000442)
Address restricted[6], near Healy, Alaska
Denali This archeological site has provided evidence which supports the Bering land bridge theory
16 Dutch Harbor Naval Operating Base and Fort Mears, U.S. Army
alt=Historic photograph of U.S. Marines in defensive trenches during the Japanese attacks of 1942, while fuel tanks burn in the background.
February 4, 1985
(#85002733)
Unalaska
53°53′16″N 166°32′23″W / 53.8878°N 166.5397°W / 53.8878; -166.5397 (Dutch Harbor Naval Operating Base and Fort Mears, U.S. Army)
Aleutians West Only U.S. fortifications in the Aleutian Islands prior to bombing of Pearl Harbor, attacked by the Japanese Navy during the Battle of Dutch Harbor in June 1942.
17 Eagle Historic District
Eagle Historic District
June 2, 1978
(#70000919)
Eagle
64°47′10″N 141°12′00″W / 64.7861°N 141.2°W / 64.7861; -141.2 (Eagle Historic District)
Southeast Fairbanks Historic district with over 100 well-preserved buildings from the Gold Rush years on the Yukon River. Roald Amundsen announced his successful traverse of the Northwest Passage from here in 1905
18 Fort Durham Site June 2, 1978
(#78000529)
Address restricted[6], near Taku Harbor in Juneau City and Borough, Alaska
Juneau One of three Hudson's Bay Company posts set up in Alaska
19 Fort Glenn
Fort Glenn
May 28, 1987
(#87001301)
Fort Glenn
53°22′39″N 167°53′24″W / 53.37750°N 167.89000°W / 53.37750; -167.89000 (Fort Glenn)
Aleutians West Well preserved World War II defense base.
20 Fort William H. Seward
Fort William H. Seward
June 2, 1978
(#72000190)
Haines
59°13′36″N 135°26′41″W / 59.2267°N 135.4446°W / 59.2267; -135.4446 (Fort William H. Seward)
Haines Last of a series of 11 military posts established in Alaska during the gold rush era
21 Gallagher Flint Station Archeological Site
Gallagher Flint Station Archeological Site
June 2, 1978
(#78003208)
Address restricted[6], Sagwon
North Slope Discovered in 1970 during the construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, it was at the time the earliest dated archaeological site in northern Alaska.
22 Holy Assumption Orthodox Church
Photograph of the front of the Holy Assumption Orthodox Church, behind a white picket fence with white clapboard and a blue roof and onion dome.
April 15, 1970
(#70000898)
Kenai
60°33′11″N 151°16′03″W / 60.55295°N 151.2675°W / 60.55295; -151.2675 (Holy Assumption Orthodox Church)
Kenai Peninsula Russian Orthodox church in Kenai, Alaska.
23 Ipiutak site
Ipiutak site
January 20, 1961
(#66000157)
Address restricted[6], Point Hope Peninsula
North Slope The type site for the Ipiutak culture
24 Iyatayet site
Iyatayet site
January 20, 1961
(#66000158)
Address restricted[6], Cape Denbigh Peninsula
Nome Shows evidence of several separate cultures, dating back as far as 6000 BC.
25 Kake Cannery
HABS photo
December 9, 1997
(#97001677)
About 1 mile (1.6 km) southwest of Kake
56°57′53″N 133°55′32″W / 56.96471°N 133.9255°W / 56.96471; -133.9255 (Kake Cannery)
Prince of Wales-Hyder Built 1912-1940; significant for role in history of salmon canning in Alaska
26 Kennecott Mines
alt=Photograph of the red-painted Kennecott Mines facilities rising up a hillside with grand mountain scenery in the far background and a field of bare glacial till in the middle background.
June 23, 1986
(#78003420)
East of Kennicott Glacier, about 6.5 miles (10.5 km) north of McCarthy
61°31′09″N 142°50′29″W / 61.51909°N 142.84149°W / 61.51909; -142.84149 (Kennecott Mines)
Valdez-Cordova Site of discovery of copper in 1900 and subsequent mining activities
27 Kijik Archeological District
Kijik Archeological District
October 12, 1994
(#94001644)
Address restricted[6], Lake Clark National Park and Preserve
Lake and Peninsula Related to the history of the Dena'ina Athabaskan Indians
28 Japanese Occupation Site, Kiska Island
alt=Historic photograph of Japanese troops raising the Imperial battle flag on Kiska Island.
February 4, 1985
(#85002732)
Kiska Island
51°58′02″N 177°29′31″E / 51.9672°N 177.4919°E / 51.9672; 177.4919 (Japanese Occupation Site, Kiska Island)
Aleutians West Site of the Japanese occupation of Kiska which along with nearby Attu were the only US land occupied by the Japanese during World War II
29 Kodiak Naval Operating Base and Forts Greely and Abercrombie
Kodiak Naval Operating Base and Forts Greely and Abercrombie
February 4, 1985
(#85002731)
Kodiak
57°44′19″N 152°30′17″W / 57.73861°N 152.50472°W / 57.73861; -152.50472 (Kodiak Naval Operating Base and Forts Greely and Abercrombie)
Kodiak Island World War II-related facilities
30 Ladd Field
Ladd Field
February 4, 1985
(#85002730)
Fairbanks
64°50′15″N 147°36′52″W / 64.8375°N 147.6144°W / 64.8375; -147.6144 (Ladd Field)
Fairbanks North Star Primary role during WWII was major stopping point for the Lend-Lease program.
31 Leffingwell Camp Site
Leffingwell Camp Site
June 2, 1978
(#71001093)
On Flaxman Island, about 58 miles (93 km) west of Kaktovik
70°11′07″N 146°03′10″W / 70.1852°N 146.05287°W / 70.1852; -146.05287 (Leffingwell Camp Site)
North Slope Campsite of geologist and polar explorer Ernest de Koven Leffingwell on Arctic coast of Alaska.
32 Nenana (river steamboat)
Nenana in 1988
May 5, 1989
(#72001581)
Pioneer Park, Fairbanks
64°50′19″N 147°46′20″W / 64.8386°N 147.77236°W / 64.8386; -147.77236 (Nenana (river steamboat))
Fairbanks North Star River steamboat; only surviving wooden one of this type.
33 New Russia Site June 2, 1978
(#72001593)
South of Kardy Lake, about 3.5 miles (5.6 km) southwest of Yakutat
59°31′37″N 139°49′36″W / 59.52694°N 139.82662°W / 59.52694; -139.82662 (New Russia Site)
Yakutat Site of Russian trading post attacked and destroyed by Tlingit natives.
34 Old Sitka
Old Sitka
June 13, 1962
(#66000166)
Mile 6.9 of Halibut Point Road, about 6 miles (9.7 km) north of Sitka
57°07′46″N 135°22′24″W / 57.12955°N 135.37342°W / 57.12955; -135.37342 (Old Sitka)
Sitka Also known as the Redoubt St. Archangel Michael Site, this was the site of a Russian-American Company settlement, established in 1799 and destroyed by Tlingit attack in 1802.
35 Onion Portage Archeological District
Onion Portage Archeological District
June 2, 1978
(#72000191)
Address restricted[6], Kiana
Northwest Arctic Perhaps most important archaeological site in Alaska; caribou river crossing; human presence for millennia.
36 Palugvik Site December 29, 1962
(#66000957)
Address restricted[6], Hawkins Island
Valdez-Cordova Includes a large midden yielding information about Eskimo culture in the area.
37 Russian-American Building No. 29
Russian-American Building No. 29
May 28, 1987
(#87001282)
202-206 Lincoln Street, Sitka
57°02′59″N 135°20′11″W / 57.04965°N 135.33629°W / 57.04965; -135.33629 (Russian-American Building No. 29)
Sitka Siding covered log building; dates back to the years after the 1867 purchase of Alaska.
38 Russian-American Magazin
Russian-American Magazin
June 13, 1962
(#66000954)
101 East Marine Way, Kodiak
57°47′16″N 152°24′12″W / 57.78765°N 152.40338°W / 57.78765; -152.40338 (Russian-American Magazin)
Kodiak Island Storehouse building associated with the Russian and then the American trading companies active in Alaska.
39 Russian Bishop's House
alt=Photograph of the two-story, yellow Russian Bishop's House.
June 13, 1962
(#66000025)
501 Lincoln Street, Sitka
57°03′05″N 135°19′52″W / 57.05147°N 135.33101°W / 57.05147; -135.33101 (Russian Bishop's House)
Sitka One of four surviving examples of Russian Colonial Style architecture in the Western Hemisphere.
40 St. Michael's Cathedral
alt=Photograph of St. Michael's Cathedral in the sunlight, with bright white walls and green domes and spires reaching to the sky.
June 13, 1962
(#66000165)
240 Lincoln Street, Sitka
57°03′00″N 135°20′06″W / 57.05008°N 135.33512°W / 57.05008; -135.33512 (St. Michael's Cathedral)
Sitka Primary evidence of Russian influence in North America.
41 Seal Island Historic District
alt=Aerial view of St. Paul Island
June 13, 1962
(#66000156)
Pribilof Islands
57°N 170°W / 57°N 170°W / 57; -170 (Seal Island Historic District)
Aleutians West Historic buildings related to northern fur seal hunting in the Pribilof Islands and its restriction in 1911 and 1966.
42 Sheldon Jackson School
Sheldon Jackson School
August 7, 2001
(#72000193)[a]
801 Lincoln Street, Sitka
57°03′03″N 135°19′25″W / 57.0509°N 135.32357°W / 57.0509; -135.32357 (Sheldon Jackson School)
Sitka Oldest institution of higher learning in Alaska
43 Sitka Naval Operating Base and U.S. Army Coastal Defenses
Sitka Naval Operating Base and U.S. Army Coastal Defenses
August 11, 1986
(#86003559)
Japonski Island, Makhnati Island and the causeway connecting them, near Sitka
57°02′58″N 135°21′35″W / 57.04941°N 135.35963°W / 57.04941; -135.35963 (Sitka Naval Operating Base and U.S. Army Coastal Defenses)
Sitka Commissioned as Sitka Naval Air Station in October 1939, it was redesignated the Naval Operating Base, July 1942. Protected the North Pacific during World War II.[7]
44 Sitka Spruce Plantation
Sitka Spruce Plantation
June 2, 1978
(#78000513)
Unalaska
53°53′12″N 166°32′23″W / 53.8866°N 166.5397°W / 53.8866; -166.5397 (Sitka Spruce Plantation)
Aleutians West First recorded afforestation project in North America; Russian settlers began in 1805; attempt to make Unalaska self-sufficient in timber.
45 Skagway Historic District and White Pass
Photograph of the Golden North Hotel in the Skagway Historic District, and other historic buildings, across a broad, unbusy street with dramatic mountains behind.
June 13, 1962
(#66000943)
Skagway and White Pass
59°27′30″N 135°18′50″W / 59.4583°N 135.3139°W / 59.4583; -135.3139 (Skagway Historic District and White Pass)
Skagway Historic frontier Gold Rush town and trail leading to White Pass on the border of Canada. Over 100 buildings from the era survive, though they are threatened by continued development. Mentioned in The Call of the Wild by Jack London.
46 George C. Thomas Memorial Library
George C. Thomas Memorial Library
June 2, 1978
(#72001542)
Fairbanks
64°50′41″N 147°43′40″W / 64.844735°N 147.727652°W / 64.844735; -147.727652 (George C. Thomas Memorial Library)
Fairbanks North Star The public library for Fairbanks from its construction in 1909 until the opening of the Noel Wien Public Library in 1977. Site of 1915 meeting between U.S. officials and native Alaskans to settle land claims.
47 Three Saints Bay Site
Three Saints Bay Site
June 2, 1978
(#72001541)
Address restricted[6], Old Harbor
Kodiak Island Site of the first Russian settlement in Alaska in 1784.
48 Wales Site
Wales Site
December 29, 1962
(#66000161)
Address restricted[6], Wales
Nome Site of first discovery of how the Thule culture followed the Birnirk culture in precontact whaling populations of the Alaskan shoreline.
49 Walrus Islands Archeological District
Walrus Islands Archeological District
December 23, 2016
(#100000875)
mouth of Bristol Bay
58°36′42″N 159°59′27″W / 58.611633°N 159.990909°W / 58.611633; -159.990909 (Walrus Islands Archeological District)
Dillingham Census Area, Alaska Island group with deeply stratified sites covering 6,000 years of human occupation.
50 Yukon Island Main Site
Yukon Island Main Site
December 29, 1962
(#66000955)
Address restricted[6], Yukon Island
Kenai Peninsula Related to the Kachemak Bay Culture.

Historic areas of the NPS in Alaska

National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, some National Monuments, and certain other areas listed in the National Park System are historic landmarks of national importance that are highly protected already, often before the inauguration of the NHL program in 1960, and are then often not also named NHLs per se. There are three of these in Alaska. The National Park Service lists these three together with the NHLs in the state,[8]

Cape Krusenstern National Monument is also an NHL and is listed above. The other two are:

Landmark name
Image Date established[9] Location County Description
1 Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park Klondike Gold Rush NHP Skagway.JPG Skagway Skagway Park of Klondike Gold Rush, an NHL shared with Seattle, Washington.
2 Sitka National Historical Park Native Alaskan Totem Pole.JPG Sitka Sitka

Former NHLs in Alaska

Landmark name[10] Image Date
designated[10]
Date withdrawn[10] Locality[10][11] Borough or
Census Area[10]
Description[11]
1 Gambell Sites[12] Ayveghyaget Site.jpg 1962[12] 1989[12] Gambell[12]
63°46′34″N 171°42′3″W / 63.77611°N 171.70083°W / 63.77611; -171.70083 (Gambell Sites)
Nome[12] These five archeological sites established a chronology of human habitation on St. Lawrence Island, with evidence of four cultural phases of the Thule tradition, beginning about 2000 years before the present. Over the 20th century, the archeological value of the sites was largely destroyed due to ivory mining, and landmark designation was withdrawn.[12]
2 Sourdough Lodge[12] Sourdough Lodge, Mile 147.5, Richardson Highway, Gakona vicinity (Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska).jpg 1978[12] 1994[12] Gakona[12]
62°18′07″N 145°18′07″W / 62.301940°N 145.30194°W / 62.301940; -145.30194 (Sourdough Lodge)
Valdez-Cordova[12] Built of logs in 1903–05, this was one of a number of roadhouses built along the Valdez Trail. It was destroyed by fire in 1992, leading to withdrawal of its landmark status. By the time of its destruction, it was one of the oldest continuously operating roadhouses in Alaska.[12]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While the form 72000193 contains 2001 NHLD designation for the entire Sheldon Jackson School, the asset detail page references the original Sheldon Jackson Museum 1972 single-property enlistment.

References

  1. ^ NPS Alaska NHL List
  2. ^ a b c "National Historic Landmarks Program: Questions & Answers". National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-09-21.
  3. ^ a b "Title 36 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 65". US Government Printing Office. Archived from the original on 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
  4. ^ Numbers represent an alphabetical ordering by significant words. Various colorings, defined here, differentiate National Historic Landmarks and historic districts from other NRHP buildings, structures, sites or objects.
  5. ^ The eight-digit number below each date is the number assigned to each location in the National Register Information System database, which can be viewed by clicking the number.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Federal and state laws and practices restrict general public access to information regarding the specific location of this resource. In some cases, this is to protect archeological sites from vandalism, while in other cases it is restricted at the request of the owner. See: Knoerl, John; Miller, Diane; Shrimpton, Rebecca H. (1990), Guidelines for Restricting Information about Historic and Prehistoric Resources, National Register Bulletin, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, OCLC 20706997.
  7. ^ "Sitka Naval Operating Base and U.S. Army Coastal Defenses". National Historic Landmarks Quioklinks. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
  8. ^ These are listed on p.110 of "National Historic Landmarks Survey: List of National Historic Landmarks by State", November 2007 version.
  9. ^ Date of listing as National Historic Site or similar designation, from various sources in articles indexed.
  10. ^ a b c d e National Park Service (June 2011). "National Historic Landmarks Survey: List of NHLs by State" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-11-05. Retrieved 2011-07-04.
  11. ^ a b National Park Service. "National Historic Landmark Program: NHL Database". Archived from the original on 2004-06-06. Retrieved 2007-10-04.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l National Park Service. "National Historic Landmark Program: Withdrawal of NHL Designation". Retrieved 2007-10-04.

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